There is little advancement of technology in the horticulturalist society, in which they had greater productivity than the hunter-gatherer society. This, society did have a surplus of food; which they kept seeds from their previous crop and planted them for their upcoming crop. Hand tools are made from iron and are used to cultivate the land for farming. The primary means of subsistence is the cultivation of corps by hand tools. Cultivation of plants began about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago (Lenski, G., Nolan, P., Lenski, J., 1995). The difference between horticulture and agriculture is that agriculture relies on the use of animals, machinery, or some non-human means to facilitate the land while horticulture relies on humans.
People in this type of society depended on the food that they had planted. This produced a larger quantity of food than the hunter-gather society; so the people didn’t move as often to obtain food. The people would settle on the land for a few years and then would move due to the lack of nutrients in the soil. This society used the slash and burned method to make their gardens in the forest. Horticultural societies obtained food easier than the hunter-gather society because they grew their own vegetables and some raised domesticated animals but they also had struggles; due to nature, pest, and other uncontrollable things.
Pastoralist society emerged in regions that horticulture was impractical. The primary means of subsistence was from domesticated livestock. This society was nomadic, like the Native Americans in which they would move their livestock to better pastures and water according to the season. Food was not wasted in this society. They used the wool from the sheep to make clothing and other parts of the animals for their survival.
Both of these societies had a more complex social organization and have increased specialization. Due to material surplus, labor distribution was unequal and so was social inequality. Some pastoral societies fought each other over grazing areas.
Lenski, G., Nolan, P., & Lenski, J. (1995). Human Societies: An Introduction to Mar sociology (7th ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.